Black and white imergery is oftern called grayscale or mono. A grayscal is a rsepresentatn of every gray value from complete white to complet black.
Through various changes made in the relatonship of exposure and development, a photographer can create any tone he wishes. other effects can be created or controled twith develpmen time, agitaion, processing temperature, developer formulae and finally through the photographci paper choosen t carry the print. Tahese alterations in the process require time and study to be able t understand them and put them to a s=use, Digital camera manufacturers Photoshop have tried to create these same effects with a button somewhere on the the camera or in the application. It is simply a machine and cannot affect the alteration as a human might, with human ability to feel the change as it is happening,. machine and while they make damn fine a buttton øn the camera th e camera
Black and White Film Photography, when well done can create create a vision fromthat is quite unusual to the modern mind. The reproduction of light was color-less and so, it did not spark a response in a viewer. The world was grayness, and drabness. Downright grim-ish.
So it goes.
After a time people began to show up on the scene with scientific minds and creative quirks. A short list would be Ansel Adams, Minor white, Fred Picker, just to name a few. The worked towards usinge scientific approach to control the realitve values of tones. The long and short of it one could previsualize the outcome of a photograph through a Zone System (There are different adaptations0 and rather than just pushing the button and let the whole mess fall as it does.
I labaored over mastering these various controls for years before I could truley understand.
Shooters using the Zone System adaptations abound. Look them up.
A lot of Ansel Adams' dark clouds are to be seen, many are conversions from digital capture into black and white and then Varous AA buttons. Some are pretty well done. MOst have the Ansel Feel but lack the Ansel drive,